Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Cryptophasa irrorata


Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805


- NSW, Como West, 20. Oct. 2002, L.S. Willan leg. (LWC). Photo Len Willan.

- NSW, Ebenezer, 11. Dec. 1999, J.C. Keast leg. (ANIC). Photo Len Willan.

- gvc 2098, Herveys Range, Queensland. Collected by Graeme Cocks.

- gvc 2098, Herveys Range, Queensland. Collected by Graeme Cocks.

Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Prodromus Entomology. Natural History of Lepidopterous Insects of New South Wales. London : T. Bensley pp. 18 pls and text (letterpress) [11]. Syntype(s) whereabouts unknown number unknown, Sydney, NSW.
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Boisduval, 1832: Voyage de Découvertes de l'Astrolabe exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Pendant les Années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le Commandement de M.J. Dumont D'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'Océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le Voyage. Part 1. Lépidoptères. Paris : J. Tastu pp. iv 5–267. [229].
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin. Duponchel, in Orbigny, C. d' (ed.), 1844, Dictionnaire universel d'Histoire Naturelle, résumant et complétant tous les faits présentés par les encyclopédies, les anciens dictionnaires scientifiques, les oevres complètes de Buffon, et les traités spéciaux sur les diverses branches des êtres et des divers phénomènes de la nature. Paris : Renard, Martinet u. Co. Vol. 4 pp. 752 [434].
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Zeller, 1853: Microlepédoptera [S.l. : s.n.]. [352.]
Cryptophaga irrorata, Lw. Meyrick, 1890: Descriptions of Australian Lepidoptera. Part I. Xyloryctidae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 13: 23–81 [34].
Cryptophaga irrorata Lewin. Lower, 1892: Descriptions of New South Australian Lepidoptera. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 15: 5-17 [16].
Cryptophaga irrorata. Illidge, 1895: Xylorycts, or timber moths. Queensland Natural History Society Transactions, 1, 29-34 [32].
Cryptophaga irrorata. Froggatt, 1895: Wood Moths: with some account of their life-histories. Trans. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 2 (9), 375-383 [380].
Cryptophaga irrorata Lewin. Lower, 1896: A catalogue of Victorian Heterocera. Part xix. The Victorian Naturalist, 12: 149-152.
Cryptophaga irrorata Lew. Walsingham, 1898: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London, (vii-xii, folowing p. 444).
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin. Kirby, 1897. A Handbook to the Order Lepidoptera, Lloyd’s Natural History, Vol V, part III. Edward Lloyd, London, 1-332 [303].
Cryptophaga irrorata Lw. Turner, 1898: The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 [7].
Cryptophaga irrorata, McLeay, in Walsingham and Durrant, 1900, Catalogue of Eastern and Australian Lepidoptera Heterocera in the Collection of the Oxford University Museum, Part II, Noctuina, Geometrina and Pyralidina by Colonel C. Swinhoe; Pterophoridae and Tineina by the Right Hon. Lord Walsingham, and John Hartley Durrant, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1-630 [549-550].
Cryptophaga irrorata. Froggatt, W. W., 1907, Australian Insects, Sydney, i-xiv, 1-449, 37 pls., (279).
Cryptophaga irrorata, Linn. Froggatt, 1923, Forest Insects of Australia, Sydney. i-viii, 1-171 (149).
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805 [Cryptophasidae] Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [61].
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. I.F.B. Common, Australian Moths, Jacaranda Press, 1963, 1-128 (50-54) [50-51, fig. 100].
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin. D’Abrera, 1974, Moths of Australia, Lansdowne Press, Melburne, 1-79 (48).
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Common, 1990: Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press. 227-230 [230].
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [86].
 Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 16 April 2010].
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin, 1805. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 18 June 2010].

Original description, Lewin 1805
Pl. 10: Lewin 1805, pre-publication print, State Library of NSW
Cryptophasa Irrorata. Pl. 10.
Specific description.
Bombyx Cryptophasa with dusky gray anterior wings, thickly speckled with brown and white dots, a conspicuous ear-like mark, and an angular patch of dark dots near the shoulder. Posterior wings dark, with a silvery margin .
THE ova of this moth being deposited on the bark of the Casuarina figured, where some branch shoots from the stem; the larva, when bred, enters immediately into the bark, boring downwards a cylindrical cell to the centre of the stem, which it increases as it grows in bulk, and uses as a retreat and dwelling- place, weaving over its entrance a convex covering, in which is interwoven the ends of leaves together with some of its excrement. See fig. 5. This covering is fastened securely at the upper end, while the lower is left in such a manner that the larva can pass and repass at pleasure. After sun-set it goes in search of food, which it conveys, a leaf at a time, to its dwelling, where it is deposited by being dragged part down the cell: thus the larva. proceeds during the whole night, and on the approach of day retires with precipitation to its retreat, where it lies with its head towards the entrance, feeding on the leaves thus provided, and never ventures out during the day. In this retreat the larva also changes to pupa, in January; spinning no web, remains in that state fourteen days, and the moth is on the wing in February. The male is shewn at 3; the female 4; the larva at 1; the pupa in a section of its dwelling when in the larva state, at 2; and the covering over the entrance, shewing the ends of the leaves the larva has provided, at 5. This species of Casuarina is found growing in barren forests, where also the moth inhabits.

Subsequent description, Boisduval 1832
C. ARROSÉE, Irrorata.
Alis anticis nigro thoraceque fuscis, albido-pulvereis, macula media obscuriori; posticis nigris, fimbria pallidiori.
Ailes et corselet d'un brun noirâtre, fortement poudrés de blanchâtre , avec une tache centrale presque lunulée plus obscure; les inférieures noires, avec la frange plus pâle.
Lewin, Prodr. Ent., pi. 10, p. 11.
Par les ailes cet insecte a un peu le port de Phycis Boletella. Il est un peu plus grand que  Lithosia Quadra. La chenille est d'un gris cendré, avec quelques poils et quatre rangs de gros points rouges tubercules; la tête est brune; le premier anneau est blanchâtre, avec deux taches brunes; le troisième anneau est marqué de six taches d'un rouge brun.
Elle vit dans les forets, sur les Casuarina.

Subsequent description, Zeller 1853
Irrorata Lewin.
Magna; alis omnibus obscure cinereis, ciliis albido fuscoque alternatis; ant. oblongis, fusco-alboque irroratis, annulo venae transversae nigricante. (♂♀)
Cryptophasa irrorata Lewin 1. c. p. 11. pl. 10. fig. 1—5. — Thon’s Archiv I, S, 35. Taf. 3. fig. 1. a—d.
Vaterland der vorigen. Die Raupe lebt im Stamm einer Casuarina und trägt in der Nacht Blätter zum Futter in ihre Höhle (?). Der Schmetterling im Februar.

Subsequent description, Meyrick 1890
Crypt. irrorata, Lw.
(Cryptophasa irrorata Lw., Ins. N. S. Wales.)
Both sexes 43-58mm. Head and thorax grey, or whitish mixed with grey, more or less sprinkled with dark fuscous. Palpi whitish, sprinkled with dark fuscous. Antennae grey-whitish, pectinations in male ochreous. Abdomen rather dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, sprinkled with whitish. Forewings oblong, posteriorly slightly dilated, costa in male straight, in female gently arched, apex rounded, hind margin somewhat oblique, gently rounded; 2 from 2/3; grey, more or less sprinkled with ferruginous and brown, and coarsely irrorated with black; a small darker spot in disc before middle, and a second beneath first; an obscure pale dark-margined reniform spot in disc at 2/3, connected with costa beyond middle by an indistinct streak; a row of more or less marked dark fuscous spots along hind margin and posterior half of costa: cilia fuscous-grey, with two darker lines. Hindwings with veins 6 and 7 from a point or short-stalked; rather dark fuscous; cilia whitish, with a fuscous line, and indistinct traces of fuscous bars.
Newcastle and Sydney, New South Wales; Melbourne and Warragul, Victoria,; bred tolerably commonly in December. Larva 16-legged, stout, cylindrical, with scattered long whitish hairs, second segment large; dull white, segmental divisions blackish; segments 5-12 each with a slender black transverse central wrinkle, two elongate-oval transverse ochreous-red spots on back near anterior margin, some scattered black depressed dots, forming short longitudinal lines on sides above spiracles, an oblique-oval ochreous-red spiracular spot bordered beneath by a blackish mark, and three roundish ochreous-red spots placed in an inverted triangle below spiracles; fourth segment with dorsal spots much smaller and more remote, each followed by a slender oblique-transverse blackish line, lateral spots as usual, but upper anterior of subspiracular spots much larger and approximated to spiracular; third segment similar to fourth, but with two additional elongate-oval transverse ochreous-red spots on back near posterior margin; second segment whitish, anteriorly brownish-tinged, with a broad dark fuscous irregular median band, attenuated beneath, interrupted on back; head blackish, with two short blunt prominences on forehead, and other smaller ones towards mouth; twelfth segment with two additional small ochreous-red spots on back on posterior margin; and segment whitish, speckled with black: feeds on Casuarina suberosa, residing in a barricaded tunnel in main branches, and carrying in twigs for food, in November.

Subequent description, Turner 1898
Cryptophaga irrorata, Lw. (Cryptophasa irrorata, Lewin, Ins. N. S.W.) Meyrick, 34. Antennal pectinations, 6-7, reaching their maximum in this species.
Brisbane: larvae common on Casuarina.

Other references

Nous citerons comme type la Cryptophasa irrorata Lew. (Prodr. ent., pl. 10, p. 11), qui à les ailes supérieures et le corselet d'un brun noirâtre, fortement poudré de blanchâtre, avec une tache centrale, presque lunulée plus obscure; les inférieures sont noires, avec la frange grise. Sa chenille vit dans les forêts, sur les Casuarina.         (D). (Duponchel, in Orbigny, 1844).

PLATE X: Duncan, 1852

CRYPTOPHASA IRRORATA.
PLATE X. figs. 1, 2.
... The species here figured is distinguished by its dusky grey anterior wings, thickly speckled with brown and white dots, a conspicuous ear-like mark, and an angular patch of dark dots near the shoulder; the hind-wings are dark, with a silvery margin.
The eggs of this moth are deposited on the bark of the Casuarina figured, where some branch shoots from the stem; and the larva, when hatched, immediately enters into the bark, boring downwards a cylindrical cell to the centre of the stem, which it increases as it grows in bulk, and uses as a retreat and dwelling-place, weaving over its entrance a convex covering, in which is interwoven the ends of leaves, together with some of its excrement, as represented on the plate. This covering is fastened securely at the upper end, while the lower is left in such a manner that the larva can pass and repass at pleasure. After sunset it goes in search of food, which it conveys, a leaf at a time, to its dwelling, where it is deposited by being dragged part down the cell. Thus the larva proceeds during the whole night, and on the approach of day retires with precipitation to its retreat, where it lies with its head towards the entrance, feeding on the leaves thus provided, and never ventures out during the day. In this retreat. the larva also changes to a pupa in January, spinning no web, remaining in that state fourteen days, and the moth is on the wing in February. The pupa is figured at the bottom of the plate in a section of its dwelling when in the larva state. The moth frequents the Casuarina, growing in barren forests. (Duncan, 1852).

Cryptophasa irrorata by Arthur Bartholomew. Drawing - Pencil, watercolour and indian ink on paper, Feb 10 1862, 15 cm x 19 cm. Drawing number 320, commissioned by Frederick McCoy as part of his zoological research for the Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, F. McCoy, 1878-1885. NMV.

Crypt. irrorata, Lewin.
Two fine male specimens from Reedbeds, from Casuarina quadrivalvis [Allocasuarina verticillata]. Hitherto not known from South Australia. (Lower, 1892).

Cryptophasa irrorata, Lewin.
This is a rather common grey and brown moth, feeding and breeding in several species of she-oaks (Casuarina) both about Sydney and Newcastle.
Mr. Thornton has given me a long account of the habits of the larva of this moth, from his own original observations. But Lewin, in his work on "New South Wales Lepidoptera," published in 1805, has given such a complete description of their habits and food plants, that it is unnecessary to dwell further on the subject. (Froggatt, 1895).

Plate CLVII: Kirby, 1898

CRYPTOPHASA IRRORATA.
(Plate CLVII.)
Cryptophasa irrorata, Lewin, Lepid. Ins. N. S. Wales, p. 11, pl. 10 (1805); Duncan, in Jardine's Nat. Libr. Exot. Moths, p. 117, pi. 10 (1841).
This remarkable species is a native of Australia.
It expands from an inch and three-quarters to two inches and a quarter.
The fore-wings are dusky grey, thickly speckled with brown and white atoms, with a conspicuous ear-shaped spot beyond the middle of the wings and an angular patch of dark dots near the shoulders. The hind-wings are blackish with silvery margins.
The eggs of this moth are laid on the bark of Casuarina, where a branch is given off, and the white red-spotted larva, as soon as it emerges, bores its way into the bark, and makes a cylindrical passage to the centre of the stem, where it lives, weaving over the entrance a convex cover formed of ends of leaves, and its own excrement. This cover is securely attached at its upper part, the lower end remaining movable, so that the larva can pass in and out. After sunset it goes in search of food, which it conveys, a leaf at a time, to its dwelling, and drags down into the cylindrical passage. In this manner the larva spends the whole of the night, and towards daybreak retires quickly to its retreat, where it lies hidden with its head towards the entrance, feeding on the stored leaves. In this passage the pupa is formed in January without a cocoon, and the moth appears in about a fortnight, in February. (Kirby, 1898).

3638. Cryptophaga irrorata, McLeay.
Cryptophasa irrorata, [McLeay], Lewin's Prodr. Ent. NH. Lp. Ins. NSW. 11, Pl. X. 1-5 (1805)1: NH. Lp. Ins. NSW. 11, PL X. 1-5 (1822)2; Thon's Ent. Archiv, I. 35-6, PI. III. 1 a-d (1827)3; [Duncan, Jardine's Nat. Libr. Ent. VII.117 (1841)4]; Z., Lin. Ent. IX. 352, No. 2 (1854)5; Wkr., Cat. Lp. Ins. BM. XXIX. 708-9 (1864)6.   Cryptophaga irrorata, Meyr., Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. XIII. 34-5, No. 12 (1890)7; Lwr., Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austral. XV. 16 (1892)8; Tmr., Ann. Queensl. Mus., No. IV. 7, No. 2 (1897)9 . Cryptophasa irrorata, W. F.
Kby., Lloyd's NH. — HB. Lp. V. 303-4, Pl. CLVII. 1-5 (1897)10.
Type ♀♂. Mus. [—?—].
   Larva in Casuarina 1-3, 5, 9-10, C. suberosa7, quadrivalvis8 XI7, I1 -3.
   Imago XII7, II 1-3, 5, 10.
   Hab. Australia 6,10. Queensland — Brisbane9. N. S. Wales — Newcastle7, Sydney7. Victoria — Melbourne7, Warragul7. Tasmania6. S. Australia — Reedbeds8.
   Mus. Oxf. One specimen ex Kirby Coll. without locality, probably N. S. Wales. [Drnt. Det. 107 (1893).] (Walshingham and Durrant, 1900).

C. irrorata is a larger moth [than Maroga melanostigma], measuring up to 2 inches across the wings, the fore pair being very broad and square at the extremities; they are of a uniform greyish brown, slightly mottled with a darker pattern round the outer margins; the hind pair are silvery brown fringed round the edges. The larva feeds on the stems of Casuarina. (Froggatt, 1907).

The Brown Cryptophaga (Cryptophaqa irorata, Linn.).
This moth lays her eggs upon the bark of many different species of she-oaks, and has a very wide range over Australia.
The larva has the same structure and habits as the cherry tree borer (C. unipunctata), but if the eggs are laid upon the stems of young she-oaks the larvae sometimes nibble quite a large area of the bark, covering it with a fine web, holding a mat of eaten-up wood dust. The larva frequently forms its chamber in the fork of two branches of the tree.
The moth measures 2 inches across the outspread winge. The fore wings
are elongate, of an almost uniform width, and slightly rounded at the tips. They are of a slightly mottled greyish-brown colour. The lens shows that the ground-work of silvery white scales are interspersed with black, brown, and yellow scales; the outer margins are fringed with grej-ish-brown spatulate scales. The hind wings are light chocolate brown, fringed with silvery white scales of the same spatulate form. The under-surfaces are light chocolate brown, shot with silvery white. (Froggatt, 1923).

Cryptophasa irrorata, fig. 100, Common, 1963

Casuarina is the host of C. irrorata Lew. (100, male 2. 1 inches), (Comon, 1963).

Cryptophasa irrorata, D’Abrera, 1974.

The genus Cryptophasa contains some beautifully marked species. C. irrorata Lewin and C. rubescens Lewin are two of the commoner species. (D’Abrera, 1974).

Cryptophasa irrorata, fig. 23.15, Common, 1990

C. irrorata Lew.  (Fig 23.15) is also common from Cape York to Victoria,  the larvae boring in the branches of Casuarina (Casuarinaceae) and feeding on the branchlets which are cut off and attached at the entrance to the tunnel. (Common, 1990).

Diagnosis: Large moths with or greyish-brown grey finely speckled forewings and unicolourous dark hindwings. Markings are variable, but there is generally a characteristic ear-shaped or lunate mark in the distal part of the disc. The uncus in the male genitalia is cornute, and the valva is long and parallel-sided, with a slight transverse groove at the apex.
Description:
Head:
Cryptophasa irrorata, T8,  Hervey’s Range, Queensland. Collected by Graeme Cocks.




















Cryptophasa irrorata, antenna, K-0768, Koah, Queensland, 7 December 21012, collected by D. Rentz and B. Richardson.





In this species the antenna is pectinated right to the very end. Cryptophasa irrorata, antenna, K-0768, Koah, Queensland, 7 December 21012, collected by D. Rentz and B. Richardson.

Thorax:
Cryptophasa irrorata, wing venation

Abdomen:
Cryptophasa irrorata, ♂ genitalia, IM07-1141, Imbil, Queensland

Cryptophasa irrorata, aedeagus, IM07-1141, Imbil, Queensland

Cryptophasa irrorata, ♂ genitalia, T2, Herveys Range Townsville. Collected by Graeme Cocks.

Cryptophasa irrorata, aedeagus, T2, Herveys Range Townsville. Collected by Graeme Cocks.

Cryptophasa irrorata, ♂ genitalia, uncus and gnathos, ANIC slide no. 1454. The ventral process of the uncus is bifid in this specimen.

Uncus deeply divided dorsally into two lobes, fusing apically. Apex dorsally curved, slightly produced, ventrally slightly pointed. Joined to beak of uncus by a narrow blade; beak short, downturned, acute, strongly sclerotised at apex. Gnathos fused laterally to uncus, with two arms joined at apex, apex narrow, upturned, rounded. strongly sclerotised. Tegumen broad, sides straight or gently rounded. margins slightly sclerotised; articulated with vinculum. Vinculum with sclerotised margins, less so towards base. Saccus acutely pointed. Juxta U-shaped, rounded. Supravalva long, mesally dilate, apically rounded, apex bilobed. Costa of valva slightly thickened near base, first 1/3 concave, thence straight; curved towards apex; apex rounded.  Lower margin of supravalva gently rounded. Basis valvae about 40% of total length of valva, obtuse, tapering, fairly narrow. Sacculus elongate-oblong, with sinus beneath clasper, apex of sacculus a triangular flange overlapping the base of the ala valvae. Lower saccular margin straight or slightly sinuate, very slightly turned in towards both ends. Claspers stalked, from inner saccular margin; long, narrow, slightly tapering, incurved at apex; lower edge sinuate, sclerotised; upper edge concave; dense band of fine setae along distal half of upper margin; moderately setose proximally. Anellus long, tapering, tubular, ventrally divided. Aedeagus long, tapering, slightly curved mesally and slightly waisted towards both proximal and distal ends.

Cryptophasa irrorata, ♀ genitalia, diagrammatic

Food plants: Larva boring in stem and tying cut branchlets at entrance to bore. Larval foodplants: Casuarina spp. (Casuarinaceae). (Edwards, 2003).
Flight period: October, December
Distribution: Distribution: Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria. Papua New Guinea. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: Indications are that this is a species complex whose relationships are not yet fully understood. There are, in possible separate species, minor variations in significant parts of the genitalia, such as the uncus, valvae and claspers, which could be useful indicators of specific difference. In particular, the apex of the uncus shows variation, as does the ventral process of the uncus.

This is the type species of Cryptophasa; if the characters of this species were strictly adhered to in the definition of the genus, several other species would be likely to have to be transferred to new genera.