Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Xylorycta



Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890


Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890, Descriptions of Australian Lepidoptera. Part I, Xyloryctidae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia  13: 23–81 [25]. Type species: Cryptolechia luteotactella Walker, 1864 by subsequent designation, see Fletcher, 1929.
Xyloricta Lucas, 1894: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, (2) 8 [163].
Xylorycta Meyr. Turner, 1898, The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 11].
Neodrepta Turner, 1898. The Xyloryctidae of Queensland. Annals of the Queensland Museum 4: 1–32 [4]. Type species: Cryptolechia luteotactella Walker, 1864 by subsequent designation, see Fletcher, 1929.
Xylorycta. Turner, 1902, New Australian Lepidoptera, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia  26, 175-207 (196).
Xylorycta Meyr. Meyrick, 1905, Descriptions of Indian Micro-lepidoptera. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 16 (4): 580-618 (602).
Xylorycta. Meyrick, 1917, Exotic Microlepidoptera. 2(2–3): 33–64, 65–96 [56].
Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890, junior synonym of Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T.B. 1929. A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, 11: 1–244 [175, 237].
Neodrepta Turner , 1897. Junior synonym of Phthonerodes, Meyrick 1890 [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T.B. 1929. A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, 11: 1–244 [146, 175].
Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890. Diakonoff, 1954, Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part 4. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen 2 ser. 50(1): 1-191 [128].
Xylorycta Meyr. Common, 1970, Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies), The Insects of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 765-866 (824).
Neodrepta. Common, 1970: Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies), The Insects of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 765-866 (824).
Xylorycta Meyrick. Common, 1990, Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press. 227-230 [229].
Xyloricta Lucas, 1894. Nye & Fletcher, 1991. Generic Names of Moths of the World Volume 6: xxix + 368 pp. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. An incorrect subsequent spelling of Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890.
Neodrepta. Junior objective synonym of Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890. Common, in Nielsen, E.S., Edwards, E.D. & Rangsi, T.V. 1996. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monogr. Aust. Lepid. 4: i–xiv, 1–529 & CD–ROM [87, 346: Note #134].
Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [88].
Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 5 May 2010].
Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 17 June 2010].

Original description, Meyrick 1890
Xylorycta, n. g.
Head with loosely appressed hairs; ocelli absent; tongue well developed. Antennae moderate, in male filiform or subserrate, strongly ciliated (1 ½-2), basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint with appressed scales, terminal joint nearly as long as second, smooth, acute. Maxillary palpi very short. Thorax smooth. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiae rough-haired above and beneath. Forewings with vein 1 long-furcate towards base, 2 from 2/3- 3/4, 3 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 11 from middle. Hindwings over 1, oblong-ovate, towards base below median and towards inner margin densely clothed with long hairs, 1b shortly furcate at base, 3 and 4 from a point or short-stalked, 5 tolerably parallel, 6 and 7 from a point or short-stalked, 8 connected with cell at a point towards base.
This genus and the following [Telecrates] are closely related, differing essentially only by the antennal ciliations; they are distinct enough at present, but might hereafter be united by the discovery of connecting forms. I think Xylorycta may be regarded as the immediate parent of Cryptophaga, which is distinguished from it mainly by the pectinated antennae. The larval habits are similar. In this and the three following genera [Telecrates, Chalarotona and Scieropepla] great care must be taken not to confuse together the various unicolorous white species, and the structural differences must be accurately observed; there are, moreover, other unicolorous white species of very similar appearance in the Oecophoridae and Gelechiadae, which might very easily be mixed with them, even by a skilled observer. The superficial resemblance of these various forms is very great, but I am unable to determine whether they imitate one another or a common model, or whether the very simple resultant may not have been produced independently by similar development under analogous circumstances, without direct imitation of anything; or instance, the end desired might have been conspicuousness.

Synonymic description, Turner 1898
Neodrepta, n.g.
Head with loosely appressed scales; ocelli absent; tongue well-developed. Antennae moderate, in male with moderate or rather long ciliations (1-2), basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi moderate, curved, ascending, second joint with appressed scales, terminal joint shorter than second, acute. Maxillary palpi very short. Thorax smooth. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiae rough-haired above and beneath. Forewings with vein 1 long-furcate towards base, 2 from 2/3 to 3/4, 3 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 8 to hindmargin, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1 or over 1, oblong-ovate, towards base below median, and towards inner-margin densely clothed with long hairs, 3 and 4 from a point, 5 parallel, 6 and 7 separate but closely approximated at base, 8 connected with cell at a point towards base.
Distinguished from all except the following genus [Paralecta] by the termination of vein 8 of forewing below apex.

Other references
XYLORYCTA, Meyr.
Antennal ciliations of male, ¼ to 2. This genus differs from Cryptophaga only in the non-pectinated antennae of the male. Recent discoveries have brought the two into very near relationship. I have been compelled to drop Meyrick's genus, Telecrates, which was distinguished only by the shorter antennal ciliations, as the new species referable to the present genus render it no longer tenable. Meyrick himself anticipated that this might corne to be the case (op.cit. 57). (Turner, 1898).

I may here remark that the large genera, Xylorycta and Lichenaula, are in an unsatisfactory position at present, and will need revision. The stalking or separation of veins 6 and 7 of the hindwings is certainly variable, in several species. (Turner, 1902).

Xylorycta Meyr.
I propose to widen the definition of the genus Xylorycta, so far as to unite with it the genera Lichenaula, Telecrates, Clerarcha, Plectophila, and Chalarotona. These were all published by me at the same time, and I select the name of Xylorycta for the resulting group because I made that typical of the family and therefore gave it precedence. The structural characters are thus extended in the following particulars : Antennal ciliations of ♂ variable (½ -3); 7 of forewings to apex or termen; 6 and 7 of hindwings approximated, connate, or stalked. (Meyrick 1905).

I note here that the genera Plectophila Meyr. (type electella Walk.) and Telecrates Meyr. (type laetiorella Walk.) are good and tenable genera, not to be merged in Xylorycta. (Meyrick, 1917).

Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890 (fig. 679)
Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral., vol. 13, p. 57. Fletcher, Mem. Agric. Ind., Ent., vol. 11, pp. 175, 237, 1929 (synonym of Phthonerodes).

Fig. 679: Xylorycta hypatolimnas spec. nov., male, head and wing neuration. (Diakonoff, 1954).

The synonymy of the genus Phthonerodes Meyrick in which Xylorycta is included by Fletcher (loco cit.), appears to be open to doubt. Mr. Clarke stated when studying Meyrick’s types at the British Museum that Xylorycta is distinct from Phthonerodes. Mr. Bradley kindly sent us sketches of the neuration of the genotypes of these two genera, after the examination of which we readily agree with Mr. Clarke.
As to the other surmised synonyms of Phthonerodes, Lichenaula Meyrick, 1890, may indeed be its synonym. Whether Clerarcha Meyrick, 1890, and Tymbophora Meyrick, 1890, are synonymous with Xylorycta will become clear after Mr. Clarke has published his studies. In that case Clerarcha has the priority of a few pages. Further names cited as synonyms by Fletcher are Chalarotorna [sic] Meyrick, 1890, Illidgea Turner, 1897, and Neodrepta Turner, 1897.  (Diakonoff, 1954, 128-129).

Fig 36.31 D. Xylorycta, Xyloryctidae. [J. Wedgebrow]. (Common, 1970).

Fig. 36.33 C. Xylorycta, Xyloryctidae. [F. Nanninga]. (Common, 1970).

In Neodrepta (7 spp.) and Xylorycta (93 spp.) the maxillary palpi are 3-segmented, and the male antennae are ciliated. Many of the species are shining white. (Common, 1970).

The large genus Xylorycta Meyrick contains 50 described species widely dstributed throughout the continent. (Common, 1990).

134. Neodrepta Turner, 1898. This is a junior objective synonym of Xylorycta Meyrick, 1890, with the same type species Cryptolechia luteotactella Walker, 1864. (Common, 1996).

Description:
Head:

Xylorycta luteotactella, ♂ head, K-0122, Kuranda, Queensland. Collected by David Rentz

Thorax:


Xylorycta luteotactella, wing venation.  NB this venation matches that of Neodrepta as described by Turner, and does not match Meyrick's Xylorycta.

Abdomen:

Xylorycta luteotactella, ♂ genitalia, K-0050, Kuranda, Queensland. Collected by David Rentz.


Xylorycta luteotactella, aedeagus (not to scale), K-0050, Kuranda, Queensland. Collected by David Rentz.

Immature stages:
Xylorycta luteotactella, larva in habitat, photo Macleay Museum, Sydney (Don Herbison-Evans).

Distribution: New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. Papua New Guinea. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: Fletcher (1929) makes an error in designating C. luteotactella as the type species, when, folowing the rules of precedence he tries so scrupulously to observe, it is plain that X. strigata (Lewin, 1805) was the first species of this genus to be described, and this should be regarded as the genotype.

Neodrepta Turner may have possibly been unfairly synonymised with Xylorycta; there are noticeable differences in the genitalia and wing venation within the genus. It is possible that Neodrepta will be able to be revived. There is a good case for this.


Most notably, the wing venation of the type species of both genera, Xylorycta luteotactella, differs from the typical venation for Xylorycta; its genitalia are also different from most species of Xylorycta, resembling those of Plectophila, especially in its asymmetrical claspers.



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