Friday, July 9, 2010

Phthonerodes


Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890


Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Descriptions of Australian Lepidoptera. Part I. Xyloryctidae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia  13: 23–81 [24]. Type species: Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890 by monotypy.
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Fletcher, T.B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera, Mem. Dep. Agric. India, Ser. 11 : 1-244 (175).
Psilosceles Turner, 1939. A new family of Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 64: 335–337 [336]. Type species: Psilosceles dichochroa Turner, 1939 by monotypy.
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Diakonoff, 1954, Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part 4. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen 2 ser. 50(1): 1-191 [128].
Phthonerodes. Gates Clark, 1955. Catalogue of the Type Specimens of Microlepidoptera in the British Museum (Natural History) Described by Edward Meyrick. Vol. 1. [17].
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Gates Clark, 1955, Meyrick Types of Microlepidoptera in the British Museum of Natural History, London. Vol 2, [485].
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Common, 1964, The Systematic Status of the Family Thalamarchellidae (Lepidoptera), Australian Journal of Entomology, 3:1, [7 – 17].
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [88].
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890 = junior subjective syonym of Lichenaula Meyrick 1890. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 25 April 2010].
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. B. Pitkin and P. Jenkins, Butterflies and Moths of the World: Generic Names and their Type-species, 2004. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/butmoth/ [accessed 22 April 2010].
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 17 June 2010].



Original description, Meyrick 1890
PHTHONERODES n. sp.
Head smooth; ocelli absent; tongue well-developed. Antennae moderate, in male filiform, simple, basal joint elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi extremely long, slender, recurved, second joint smooth, terminal joint longer than second, acute. Maxillary palpi very short. Thorax smooth. Abdomen moderate. Posterior tibiae shortly rough-scaled above. Meyrick, 1890). Forewings with vein 1 furcate towards base, 2 from ¾, 3 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to hindmargin, 11 from middle. Hindwings over 1, suboblong, apex produced and pointed, 1b and 1c densely haired towards base, 1b shortly furcate at base, 3 and 4 from a point or short-stalked, 5 parallel, 9 [sic] and 8 approximated at base, 8 connected, with cell at a point before middle.
Appears to be a development of Catoryctis.

Synonymic description, Turner 1939
Gen. Psilosceles nov. (ψιλοσκελης, with smooth tibiae.)
Antennae about four-fifths. Palpi very long; second joint about 3 times length of face, slender; terminal joint as long as second. Posterior tibiae smooth with a few hairs on dorsum at apex. Forewings with 2 very oblique from about three-fourths, 3 and 4 approximated from angle. Hindwings with 5 from below middle, 6 and 7 widely separated at origin, thence diverging, 11 closely approximated to cell to about middle.
Rather closely allied to Thalamarchis [Thalamarchalla, Depressariidae]; the points of difference being of minor importance, with the exception of the origin of 2 in the forewings, which suggests some relation, probably distant, to the Xyloryctidae.

Subsequent description, Common, 1964
Genus Phthonerodes Meyrick
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890, Trans. roy. Soc. S. Aust. 14: [sic = 13] 44; Diakonoff, 1954, Verh. Akad. Wet. Amst. 50(3): 130; Clark, 1955, Cat. Type Spec. Micro. Brit. Mus., 2: 485.
Psilosceles Turner, 1939, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 64: 336 (Type species Psilosceles dichochroa Turner, 1939, by monotypy, a junior subjective synonym of Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyr., 1890) (syn. n.).
Head with appressed scales; ocelli absent; antenna simple in both sexes; haustellum well developed; labial palpus long, recurved, second segment slender, with appressed scales, greatly exceeding vertex, apical segment very slender, slightly longer than second. Thorax without crest; metatibiae with moderately long roughened scales above. Forewing (Fig. 4) with costa strongly arched, apex drawn out to a rounded point, R1 from one-half cell, R2 from two-thirds, R3 from near upper angle, R4 and R5 long-stalked, R5 to termen, M2, M3 and Cu1a approximated at base, Cu1b from before three-fourths cell, Cu2 developed near margin. Hindwing (Fig. 4) with Sc+R1 fused with Rs in basal two-fifths of cell, Rs from well before upper angle of cell, running to apex, M1 from upper angle of cell and diverging from Rs, M3 and Cu1a connate from lower angle, Cu1b from two-thirds cell. Cu2 reduced, 1A + 2A not forked at base. Abdomen with dorsal spining.
Male genitalia: (Figs. 21, 22). — Uncus short, prominently humped above; gnathos arms short, thick, united medially to form a rounded hook; anellus tubular; valva broad at base, constricted in middle, sacculus heavily sclerotized, ending in dense bunch of bristles; vinculum expanded into a triangular saccus; aedeagus curved, without cornutus, ductus ejaculatorius entering anteriorly, without coecum.
Female genitalia (Fig. 25). — Papillae anales small, elongate; eighth tergum and sternum expanded posteriorly, clothed with long hairs; ductus bursae coiled once just anterior to junction of ductus seminalis, sclerotized between junction of ductus seminalis and ostium and lightly scobinate towards corpus bursae; corpus bursae oval, signum a dentate or scobinate plate.
Type species. — Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890 (by monotypy).
Other references

Crypt.        PHTHONERODES, Meyrick 1890.
T. R. Soc. S. Austr. XIII 44-45: type scotarcha M. [S. Australia].
                        Lichenaula, Meyr. 1890.
                        Tymbophora, Meyr. 1890.
                        Clerarcha, Meyr. 1890.
                        Xylorycta, Meyr 1890.
                        Chalarotona, Meyr. 1890.
                        Illidgea, Turner, 1897.
                        Neopdrepta, Turner, 1897.
(Fletcher, 1929).

The synonymy of the genus Phthonerodes Meyrick in which Xylorycta is included by Fletcher (loco cit.), appears to be open to doubt. Mr. Clarke stated when studying Meyrick’s types at the British Museum that Xylorycta is distinct from Phthonerodes. Mr. Bradley kindly sent us sketches of the neuration of the genotypes of these two genera, after the examination of which we readily agree with Mr. Clarke.
As to the other surmised synonyms of Phthonerodes, Lichenaula Meyrick, 1890, may indeed be its synonym. Whether Clerarcha Meyrick, 1890, and Tymbophora Meyrick, 1890, are synonymous with Xylorycta will become clear after Mr. Clarke has published his studies. In that case Clerarcha has the priority of a few pages. Further names cited as synonyms by Fletcher are Chalarotorna [sic] Meyrick, 1890, Illidgea Turner, 1897, and Neodrepta Turner, 1897.  (Diakonoff, 1954).

The family XYLORYCTIDAE was proposed by Meyrick in 18905 [5 Trans. R. Soc. S. Australia, 13: 23, 1890] for a group of Australian genera and species characterised by a short cross-vein between the cell and vein 8 of the hindwing which the author, at that time, claimed to be " ... invariably present." As time went on, Meyrick broadened his concept of the family and included in it genera and species from many tropical and temperate regions of the world , and not only assigned many of his own genera to this family but included those of other authors. The thirty Meyrick genera treated in this work, assigned by him to the XYLORYCTIDAE, comprise a large assortment of types and representatives of several families. Of these genera only four, Amorbaea, Epichostis [Depressariinae], Linoclostis [Oecophorinae] and Nephantis [Opisina], possess the crossvein between the cell and vein 8 on which Meyrick laid so much stress. Two other genera, Neospastis [Stenomatidae] and Synchalara, have vein 8 almost anastomosing with the cell, indicating a tendency to the formation of a cross-vein, and in the genus Phthonerodes vein 8 fuses along the cell for more than one-third its length. (Gates Clark 1, 1955).

PHTHONERODES Meyrick
Phthonerodes Meyrick, 1890, Trans. R. Soc. South Australia, 14: 44. (Typus generis: Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, l.c., 45 [monotypy].) (Gates Clark 2, 1955).

Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Phthonerodes scotarcha, ♂ genitalia. 50 miles S of Coolgardie, WA., 28 October 1958. ANIC slide no. G268, dissected by I.F.B. Common. Photomicrograph taken at ANIC, Canberra.

Phthonerodes scotarcha, aedeagus. 50 miles S of Coolgardie, WA., 28 October 1958. ANIC slide no. G268, dissected by I.F.B. Common. Photomicrograph taken at ANIC, Canberra.


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Immature stages:

Distribution: Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks:

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Phthonerodes peridela Common, 1964


Phthonerodes peridela, ANIC

Phthonerodes peridela, ANIC, BOLD


Phthonerodes peridela Common, 1964, The systematic status of the family Thalamarchellidae (Lepidoptera). J. Ent. Soc. Qd 3: 7–17 [16]. Holotype ANIC ♂, Black Mtn, ACT.
Phthonerodes peridela Common, 1964. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [88].
Lichenaula peridela, (Common, 1964). Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 24 April 2010].
Phthonerodes peridela Common, 1964. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 17 June 2010].



Original description, Common 1964
Phthonerodes peridela* sp. n. (Figs. 23, 24, 26)
Types: AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY : Holotype male labelled “Black Mt., A.C.T., Light Trap, 11 Jan. 1959, I. F. B. Common” (genitalia slide No. G364); allotype female with same label data, but collected 25 Jan. 1960 (genitalia slide No. G367); both in Australian National Insect Collection, C.S.I.R.O., Canberra.
Holotype male. — Head dark fuscous, margined laterally with white, frons whitish; antenna dark fuscous, white anteriorly on each segment, scape fuscous, whitish apically; labial palpus white, second segment fuscous posteriorly and anteriorly in apical two-thirds, leaving a clear white lateral stripe. Thorax dark fuscous, whitish towards tegulae, beneath white; legs white, tibiae and tarsi suffused with fuscous. Forewing whitish in costal two-thirds, suffused with fuscous, suffusion becoming heavier towards apex, with four indistinct longitudinal fuscous streaks on Sc, R, in middle of cell and on Cu1, costa fuscous; fuscous in dorsal one-third, the costal edge of this area bearing a dark fuscous bar, followed by a large oval dark fuscous spot, with a small triangular whitish indentation immediately beyond; apex and termen of wing edged with dark fuscous; cilia dark fuscous. Hindwing fuscous, ochreous basally; cilia light fuscous, basal one-fourth dark fuscous. Expanse 20.0 mm.

Fig. 23

Fig. 24

Genitalia (Figs. 23, 24) : valva with apex pointed, excavated beneath apex, sacculus heavily sclerotized and expanded at apex, extending to one-half valva, with dense bunch of long distally directed bristles, reaching to beyond three-fourths valva.
Allotype female. — Similar to male, hindwings basally less ochreous. Expanse 20.6 mm.


Fig, 26

Genitalia (Fig. 26): ostium small, cupshaped; ductus bursae expanded beyond junction of ductus seminalis, then slender to corpus bursae; signum a large scobinate plate, tapering anteriorly and posteriorly and bent almost at right angles in middle.

Specimens examined. — l ♂ 3 ♀. In addition to the holotype and allotype, the following specimens are in the Australian National Insect Collection : QUEENSLAND: Lawes, 24, 30 Sept. 1944, larva and pupa under bark Eucalyptus propinqua, IFBC, 2 ♀.

Comments. — The female adults from Queensland are a little paler than the holotype and allotype, and have the bases of the hindwings more distinctly ochreous. The fuscous streaks along the veins of the forewing are also a little more distinct. However, there seems to be no noticeable difference in the genitalia. The pale streaked costal two-thirds of the forewing and the partly fuscous hindwing at once separate the species from the much darker P. scotarcha. The two species are readily distinguished by the genitalia in both sexes. Diagnostic characters are provided by the male valva and sacculus and the signum in the female.

A larva and two pupae, from which the two specimens of P. peridela were reared, were collected from beneath bark of Eucalyptus propinqua at Lawes, but the larval feeding habits are unknown. The pupae were in compact flattened silken cocoons. Similar larvae have been taken beneath Eucalyptus bark at Brisbane, but adults were not reared.

*περιδηλος, very clear.

Diagnosis:
Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:
Phthonerodes peridela, ♂ genitalia, holotype. Black Mountain light trap, 11 January 1959, collected by I.F.B.Common. ANIC slide no. G364, dissected by I.F.B.Common. Photomicrograph taken at ANIC, Canberra.
Phthonerodes peridela, aedeagus, holotype. Black Mountain light trap, 11 January 1959, collected by I.F.B.Common. ANIC slide no. G364, dissected by I.F.B.Common. Photomicrograph taken at ANIC, Canberra.

--> Food plants: Larva under bark. Larval foodplant: Eucalyptus propinqua (Myrtaceae). (Edwards, 2003).
Flight period: September, January.
Distribution: Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks:



Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890.


Phthonerodes scotarcha, ANIC

Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890. Descriptions of Australian Lepidoptera. Part I. Xyloryctidae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia  13: 23–81 [45]. Syntype(s) BMNH number unknown ♂♀, Quorn and Wirrabara, SA.
Phthonerodes scotarcha M. [Cryptophasidae]. Fletcher, T. B., 1929, A list of generic names used for Microlepidoptera. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture of India,  11: 1-244 [175].
Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick. Gates-Clark, 1955 Meyrick Types of Microlepidoptera in the British Museum of Natural History, London. 2. Pl. 241, [485].
Psilosceles dichochroa Turner, 1939. A new family of Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 64: 335–337 [336]. Syntype(s) ANIC 2♂♀, Coorow, WA.
Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890. Common, in Nielsen, Edwards, & Rangsi, 1996, Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, 4: i-xiv, 1-529 & CD-ROM [88].
Lichenaula scotarcha Meyrick, 1890. Beccaloni, G. W., Scoble, M. J., Robinson, G. S. & Pitkin, B. (Editors). 2003. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (LepIndex). World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/lepindex [accessed 24 April 2010].
Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890. Edwards, E. D. (2003), Xyloryctinae. Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/taxa/XYLORYCTINAE [accessed 17 June 2010].

Original description, Meyrick 1890
Phthon. scotarcha, n. sp.
Both sexes I3-21mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous, with a fine white streak above eyes. Palpi blackish, second joint with white longitudinal line on each side, terminal joint with a white a line in front. Antennae white, annulated with blackish; abdomen grey, sides whitish-yellowish. Legs grey, irrorated with yellow-whitish, posterior tibiae pale whitish-yellowish. Forewings elongate, costa strongly arched, apex round-pointed, hindmargin rather deeply sinuate, oblique; fuscous, densely irrorated with blackish-fuscous; a straight white dark-margined longitudinal line from base below middle, more or less nearly approaching hindmargin above anal angle, but suffused and indistinct posteriorly, interrupted by a small dark fuscous spot in middle: cilia dark fuscous, with partially indicated yellow-whitish bars. Hindwings light yellow; sometimes some fuscous scales at extreme apex; cilia whitish-fuscous, with a darker fuscous line near base.
Quorn and Wirrabara, South Australia, in October; taken plentifully on a fence beneath some Eucalyptus-trees during a gale.
Synonymic description, Turner 1939
Psilosceles dichochroa, n. sp.
(διχοχροος, double-coloured.)
♂,♀. 18-20 mm. Head and thorax dark fuscous. Palpi dark fuscous with two slender whitish side lines on anterior surface of second joint. Antennae fuscous. Abdomen fuscous with lateral ochreous streaks. Legs fuscous; anterior coxae, middle and posterior femora, and posterior tibiae except at apex ochreous-whitish. Forewings dilated before . middle, costa strongly arched, apex subrectangular, termen obliquely rounded, dark fuscous; in male a slender whitish line on fold , from base to near above tornus; in female this is obsolete, being represented by a few whitish scales only; cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings broadly ovate, termen sinuate; deep ochreous-yellow; cilia grey; bases dark fuscous.
Western Australia: Coorow in October; two specimens.
Subsequent description, Common 1964
Fig. 4
Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick (Figs. 4, 21, 22, 25)
Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick, 1890, Trans. roy. Soc. S. Aust. 14: [sic] 45; Clark, 1955, Cat. Type Spec. Micro. Brit. Mus., 2: 485, pl. 241, Figs. I, la, Ib, lc, Id.
Psilosceles dichochroa Turner, 1939, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 64: 336 (Holotype ♀ labelled “Coorow, W.A., 16.10.38” (genitalia slide No. G358) in Aust. Nat. Ins. Coll.) (syn. n.).
Lectotype: SOUTH AUSTRALIA : A male labelled “Quorn, S. Australia, 23.10.82” (genitalia slide No. 6803) in the British Museum (Natural History), designated by Clark (1955).

Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Male genitalia (Figs. 21, 22). —Valva with rounded apex, sacculus not expanded at apex, with dense bunch of short, costally direcled bristles, reaching nearly half-way across valva.
Fig. 25
Female genitalia (Fig. 25). — Ostium broad, shallow; ductus bursae relatively broad between junction of ductus seminalis and corpus bursae; signum a lanceolate dentate plate.
Expanse. — Male 17.0-18.8 mm, female 17.6-22.4 mm.
Specimens examined. — 4 ♂, 16 ♀, in Australian National Insect Collection : NEW SOUTH WALES: Trangie, 20 Oct. 1949, IFBC, 3 ♂ 5 ♀. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 50 mls. S. of Coolgardie, 16 Oct. 1958, IFBC, 1 ♂ 9 ♀; Coorow, 16 Oct. 1938, (AJT), 2 ♀ (holotype and paratype of Psilosceles dichochroa).
Comments. — The species seems to be widely distributed in the southern inland of Australia. As Meyrick’s original specimens were taken resting on a fence beneath Eucalyptus trees, it is probable that the larval host is Eucalyptus and that the larvae and pupae may be found beneath bark as in P. peridela.
P. scotarcha is easily recognized by its blackish forewings, bearing a slender white longitudinal line along the fold near the base, and its clear yellow hindwings with dark cilia.
P. peridela has much paler forewings, in which the greyish costal two-thirds contrasts strongly with the much darker dorsal one-third, while the hindwings are suffused with fuscous. The male genitalia of the latter are much larger than in P. scotarcha and the sacculus is armed distally with a much larger bunch of longer bristles. In the female genitalia, the ductus bursae in P. peridela is longer and more slender and the signum is a much larger, folded scobinate plate.
Other references

Figure 1, left wings;
1a, venation of right wings;
1b, lateral aspect of head to show palpus

1c, lateral aspect of aedeagus

1d, ventral view of male genitalia with aedeagus removed. (Gates-Clark, 1955).


Phthonerodes scotarcha Meyrick
Plate 241, Figures 1-1d
“Both sexes 13-21 mm., ... Quorn and Wirrabara, South Australia, in October; taken plentifully on a fence.”
Lectotype: ♂, 14 mm., “Quorn, S. Australia. 23/10/82." There are ten specimens in the Meyrick collection which probably represent all the original material. Slide No. 8803.
Figure I, left wings; la, venation of right wings; Ib, lateral aspect of head to show palpus; Ic, lateral aspect of aedeagus; Id, ventral view of male genitalia with aedeagus
removed. (Gates Clark, 1955).

Diagnosis:
Description:
Head:
Thorax:
Abdomen:

Phthonerodes scotarcha, ♂ genitalia. 50 miles S of Coolgardie, WA., 28 October 1958. ANIC slide no. G268, dissected by I.F.B. Common. Photomicrograph taken at ANIC, Canberra.
Phthonerodes scotarcha, aedeagus. 50 miles S of Coolgardie, WA., 28 October 1958. ANIC slide no. G268, dissected by I.F.B. Common.  Photomicrograph taken at ANIC, Canberra.


Food plants:
Flight period: October.
Distribution: New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia. Endemic. (Edwards, 2003).

Remarks: